Reference to the default() function

Summary

default([<timeWindow>,] [<delayTime>,] <defaultValue>, <tsExpression>)

Fills in gaps in the time series described by tsExpression, by inserting data points with the value defaultValue. Specify timeWindow to fill in data for just a limited period of time after each existing point. Specify delayTime to allow a gap before the inserted data.

Note: Despite its apparent simplicity, the default() function is one of the most misunderstood functions in Wavefront’s query language. See the Caveats section below for recommendations.

Parameters

ParameterDescription
timeWindow Maximum amount of time to fill with inserted data points. If you omit this parameter, gaps of up to 4 weeks are completely filled.
You can specify a time measurement based on the clock or calendar (1s, 1m, 1h, 1d, 1w), the window length (1vw) of the chart, or the bucket size (1bw) of the chart. Default is minutes if the unit is not specified.
delayTime Amount of time that must pass without a reported value before inserting data points. If you omit this parameter, data points are inserted at the beginning of each gap.
defaultValue Value that you want to use in places where there are gaps in the data. You can specify a constant or a function that returns time series.
tsExpression Expression in which you want to replace gaps in data with a default value.

Description

The default() function allows you to specify the value that you would like to assign to gaps of missing data on a chart. This is the only missing data function that allows you to specify the value you’d like to assign to gaps of missing data.

For the simplest case, you can use default() to set the default value of a query to 0 if the specified metric does not exist:

default(0, ts(my.metric))

Note: In certain situations we don’t recommend using default(). See the list of Caveats below. In that case, use the following query instead.

if(exists(ts(my.metric)), ts(my.metric), 0)

Examples

The first screenshot shows two time series. The lines are dashed when there are no data:

ts_default before

If we wrap default() and specify 0 as the default, missing data are replaced with 0 in the display.

ts_default image

Caveats

Use default() with care:

  • Sometimes using default() is just what you need - but sometimes it does not behave the way you might expect.
  • In many cases default() does not add value when used with alerts.
  • default() can affect performance - and in some cases prevent alerts from firing.

Here are some things to watch out for – and suggestions how you can rewrite the query without using default() in many cases:

  • Time series churn: Use of default() leads to slower queries if there’s time series churn, that is, old time series stop reporting and new time series start reporting all the time. This can happen easily if sources are dynamically provisioned, for example, in case of an EC2 instance. For example, consider the following query:

    align(1m, default(0, ts("filehandles.used"))) / align(1m, default(0, ts("filehandles.total"))) * 100 > 60.

    Assume your environment has about 350 active time series at any moment, but within the last 4 weeks, ~7200 unique time series were active. In this case, default() is not needed at all - filehandles.used and filehandles.total always report together. The following query is more than 20x faster:

    ts("filehandles.used") / ts("filehandles.total") * 100 > 60

  • Alerts don’t fire: When a metric arrives with a delay of more than 1 minute, the use of default() can prevent an associated alert from firing because the value for the last minute evaluates to false.

    Instead of accounting for sparse metrics – success.count is reporting all the time, but failure.count is reporting a value only when there’s a problem – approach the query from a different angle.

    Instead of:

    ts(success.count) * 100 / (default(0, ts(failure.count)) + ts(success.count)) < 95

    Use

    ts(failure.count) * 100 / (ts(failure.count) + ts(success.count)) > 5

  • Using highpass() and default(): Using highpass() after default() with a higher highpass value than default reverts the effects of default().

    Instead of

    highpass(..., default(0, ts(...)))

    Use

    highpass(..., ts(...))

  • Using msum() and default(): Using msum() after default(0, ) is redundant because msum() always returns a value for all active series where default(0, ) backfills a value.

    Instead of

    msum(..., default(0, ts(...)))

    Use

    msum(..., ts(...))

  • Using rawsum() after default(): Using rawsum() after default(0, ) is usually redundant. If you are sure that default() is necessary:

    Instead of

    rawsum(default(0, ts(...)))

    Use

    default(0, rawsum(ts(...)))

If you still think that default() is needed, limit the time window to reduce performance problems.

See Also

Using Moving and Tumbling Windows to Highlight trends

Other missing data functions include: