You can calculate continuous aggregation over a sliding time window using one of the moving window functions. Moving time window functions are useful if, for example, you want to calculate the moving average over the past 24 hours.

But if you want to look at the daily average for each day, you have to create fixed-size time window. This page explains how use moving and fixed-sized time windows.

## Calculating Continuous Aggregation with Moving Window Functions

The Wavefront moving window time functions allow you to calculate continuous aggregation over sliding time windows. Wavefront offers functions for creating moving windows on various aggregation such as `msum()`

,` mavg()`

, `mmedian()`

, `mcount()`

, etc. These functions create continuous moving or sliding windows which can be useful for looking at moving trends.

Recalculation happens at different times for discrete and for continous time series:

- For discrete time series, the moving windows recalculation is done every second.
- For continuous time series, the recalculation is done for every bucketing interval. For example, if you have a 30 second bucketing interval, then recalculation happens every 30 seconds.

For example, the chart below shows the 24 hour moving average of the points received from the following queries:

Rate | `sum(rate(ts(~agent.points.2878.received)))` |

Moving avg | `mavg(24h, ${rate})` |

The following chart shows the resulting continuous moving average over the past 24 hours.

The moving average shows, at any point in time, the average based on the values of the last 24 hours. But if you want to only look at the daily average for each day, and display that average, you have to:

- Create fixed-size time windows
- Record your metrics in these windows. We show some examples at the bottom of this page.

These windows are commonly referred as *tumbling windows*. Tumbling windows are a series of fixed size, non-overlapping, and contiguous time intervals.

## How Moving Windows Are Different From Tumbling Windows

The following diagrams compare moving and tumbling windows.

### Moving Windows

The following diagram illustrates how a series of points is mapped into 5-second moving windows.

The moving window slides ahead one second at a time. New points are added at the front and the older points become invisible as the window moves ahead. The moving windows overlap.

### Tumbling Windows

Tumbling windows are fixed windows that do not overlapâ€“the set of points is exclusive for each window, as shown in the diagram below:

You can also find the three tumbling windows in the sequence of moving windows. Every 5th moving window forms this 5-second tumbling window. To create tumbling window of `n`

duration (5 seconds in this example) you can sample every nth moving window (5th window), sliding ahead in the same unit of duration (seconds in this example). You can see that in the following diagram:

## Tumbling Window Examples

There are several common use cases for tumbling windows.

### Display Daily Average

We can use tumbling windows to get the average daily rate.

We use the `hour()`

function to sample the average every day at midnight. This results in the average for 24 hours, and we can display this average across the day using the missing data function `next()`

.

In the chart below, the green circles show the sampled data. We use `next()`

to display the information for the entire day, as in the following queries. The corresponding chart is immediately below.

Rate | `sum(rate(ts(~agent.points.2878.received)))` |

Moving avg | `mavg(24h, ${rate})` |

Sampled at midnight | `if (hour("US/Pacific") = 0,${mavg})` |

Daily avg | `next(24h,if(hour("US/Pacific") = 0,${mavg})` |

You can use missing data functions to display the result across tumbling windows.

### Count the Unique Number of Metrics per Day

The following example shows the metrics reported to Wavefront by the Slack application in both the moving and the tumbling windows.

The chart shows the count per day starting at midnight PDT. If the count per day is missing at midnight, the chart looks at the first value in count per day up to 12:30am, and uses that value as the value for the entire day.

This example is similar to the daily average example above. However, instead of sampling the moving count exactly at midnight, we take into account any missing or delayed data and pick the first value of the 30 minutes past midnight. The `next()`

function displays this value for the entire day.

We use the following queries:

data | `ts("slack.*")` |

mcount | `sum(mcount(24h, ${data}))` |

windowed | `if (hour("US/Pacific") <= 0.5,${mcount})` |

window-aligned | `align(1h, first, ${windowed})` |

Readable across day | `next(24h, ${window-aligned})` |

### Get a 50th Percentile of Each 5-minute Bucket

The following examples show how you can covert any moving function to a fixed or tumbling window by correctly sampling the moving window. You can use time functions the `align()`

function, or both.

In the following chart, sample data is being reported every 1 minute.

For the same time series, we show a 5-minute moving percentile. The result is the 50th percentile point in the last 5 minutes. We display this point at every minute interval.

If you want to find a 50th percentile of points in fixed 5-minute window, you can use `align(5m,...)`

to sample, followed by `next()`

to display the 50th percentile for the entire 5-minute window. The example uses `align()`

instead of a time function.

This example plots the raw data overlaid with the 5-minute tumbling window for the 50th percentile. The orange line is the 50th percentile of points in every 5-minute fixed window. You can see how it coincides with the middle-valued point in that time interval.