Certain operators and functions apply to pairs of time series. When you specify two ts() expressions as parameters, Wavefront implicitly performs series matching across these expressions to identify meaningful pairs of individual time series to operate on. For example, implicit series matching in the following operation causes Wavefront to compare metrics for disk reads and disk writes only when they come from the same source and have common point tag values:
ts(~sample.disk.bytes.read) > ts(~sample.disk.bytes.written)
Implicit series matching also determines whether these operators and functions return any result at all. For example, when you try to subtract one time series from another, Wavefront can’t perform the operation if none of the sources match.
Note: This page describes implicit series matching, which works well for time series that all have the same set of source tags and point tags. Consider using
join(...INNER JOIN...) if you need to match up series whose sources and point tags do not correspond exactly.
When Wavefront Performs Implicit Series Matching
Wavefront performs series matching implicitly when you apply certain operators and functions to two or more ts() expressions, where each expression represents two or more unique metric|source|point tag value tuples. The following operators and functions automatically perform series matching:
- Arithmetic operators (+, -, /, *)
- Boolean operators (and, or)
- Comparison operators (>, <, =, >=, <=, !=)
- Filter functions (highpass, lowpass, min, max)
- Exponential and trigonometric functions
Series Matching Occurs
The following examples show when series matching occurs:
|(A,B,C) * (B,C,D)||(B,C)||Only series B and C match up|
|(A,B,C) and (X,Y,Z)||NO DATA||No series match up which results in no data|
|(A,B,C) [>] (A)||(A)||With the second argument being A only there would be no series matching, but the inner join around > forces series matching. As a result, we'll have a join on A only, resulting in 1 series instead of 3.|
Series Matching Does Not Occur
The following examples show when series matching does not occur:
|(A,B,C) / 3||(A,B,C)||The number 3 is a single constant value and is applied to A, B, and C|
|(D) * (A,B,C)||(A,B,C)||D is a single series value and is applied to A, B, and C.|
|(B,D,F) + sum(A,B,C)||(B,D,F)||While B is the only series in both arguments, A, B, and C are aggregated into a single value with sum() and applied to B, D, and F.|
Series Matching Basics
Suppose you enter the following ts() expression:
ts("stats.servers.MemTotal", tag="dc1") - ts("stats.servers.MemFree", tag="east")
Wavefront determines which time series match up and subtracts the value for
stats.servers.MemFree for each matching series.
Assume that the source tags
east have three sources that match up (
app-5), and four sources that don’t (
app-7). As a result, the chart displays only data associated with
app-5. The data for
app-7 are ignored.
There are cases when you apply functions to expressions, but no series matching occurs. This happens when one of the evaluated ts() expression is a constant value, such as 1, or represents a single time series, such as a single source or aggregated data with no “group by”.
For example, if you replaced
source="app-4", then the value associated with
app-4 in the second expression at each time slice is subtracted from each represented source in the first expression at each time slice. If you still want series matching to occur in the previous example, then you can wrap the operator or function with strict inner join (i.e.
Series Matching Example
Here’s an example where the Wavefront UI displays a message that starts like this:
15 series were not included in all queries (showing up to 5):...
Some of the series are not included in all queries because there was no match.
- Some expressions limit the environment to
- Other expressions don’t use the filter.
When part of a query uses a filter, but another part doesn’t, then the whole query uses the filter. In this example, all queries will be limited to
Series Matching with Point Tags
Consider the following ts() query:
ts(disk.space.total, tag="az-1" and env=*) - ts(disk.space.used, tag="az-1" and env=*)
In this example, the
env point tag key takes the values
"development". If source
app-1 includes the
"development" in the first ts() call, but includes the
production in the second ts() call, they do not match up.
Series matching occurs only for exact matches. This also means that if two series have the same source|metric|point tag but one of the series includes an additional point tag that the other series does not have, series matching does not include the series with the additional point tag in the results.
Series Matching with the “by” Construct
In some cases, series matching with point tags results in no data because not all of the tags exist on both sides of the operator. You can use the
by construct to perform matching using the element of your choice to get results for those series.
This section explains the concepts using the
by, you can use
join(...INNER JOIN...)if you need to match up series whose point tags do not correspond exactly.
Suppose you’re interested in the set of hosts that have a
cpu.idle of more than 50 and a
build.version equal to 1000. You start with a set of hosts and run the following query:
(ts(cpu.idle) > 50) and (ts(build.version) = 1000)
The following series are returned by the first part of the query,
(cpu.idle) > 50:
The following series are returned by the second part of the query,
(build.version) = 1000
It seems like an operation on these two series should yield a result, but the query with the AND operator above returns NO DATA because the dc tag cannot be matched on both sides of the expression.
In this example, while there is a host-1 on both sides of the operation, the first part of the query maps to two different hosts named host-1. There’s no guidance on which of these 2 hosts to pick, so the system doesn’t pick one.
You can use the
by query language keyword to specify the point tag(s) to map by. For the example above, you can expand the query as follows:
(ts(cpu.idle) > 50) and by (stage, source) (ts(build.version) = 10000)
With this addition, the query returns the following 6 series, joined with the elements on the right.
Processing Output Metadata From a Series Match
If you don’t specify an operator in your query, Wavefront automatically flips the query to the side with more dimensions. To achieve many-to-one and one-to-many series matching and specify which side of a query metadata to have in your query results, use the
Automatic Query Flip
Unless you use an operator, such as such as
groupLeft, Wavefront automatically flips the query to have the more detailed side of the join be the driver. In the example above, that is the
cpu.idle part of the query.
Series Matching with “groupLeft” and “groupRight” Construct
You can use
groupLeft operators to achieve many-to-one and one-to-many series matching, similarly to the Many-to-one and one-to-many PromQL vector matches.
For example, when we use the
groupRight operator in the query below, we see results with the
processId tag which is on the right side of the operator.
sum(ts(~agent.listeners.connections.*), port, processId) + by(processId) groupRight sum(ts(~agent.points.2878.blocked), processId)
In the example below, we use the
groupLeft operator. Therefore, we see results with the
processId tags, which are on the left side of the operator.
sum(ts(~agent.listeners.connections.*), port, processId) + by (processId) groupLeft sum(ts(~agent.points.2878.blocked), processId)