Learn best practices for using the default() function.

Despite its apparent simplicity, the default() function is one of the most misunderstood functions in Wavefront’s query language.

Use default() with care:

  • Sometimes using default() is just what you need - but sometimes it does not behave the way you might expect.
  • In many cases default() does not add value when used with alerts.
  • default() can affect performance - and in some cases prevent alerts from firing.

Here are some things to watch out for:

  • Time series churn: Use of default() leads to slower queries if there’s time series churn, that is, old time series stop reporting and new time series start reporting all the time. This can happen easily if sources are dynamically provisioned, for example, in case of an EC2 instance. For example, consider the following query:

    align(1m, default(0, ts("filehandles.used"))) / align(1m, default(0, ts("filehandles.total"))) * 100 > 60.

    Assume your environment has about 350 active time series at any moment, but within the last 4 weeks, ~7200 unique time series were active. In this case, default() is not needed at all - filehandles.used and filehandles.total always report together. The following query is more than 20x faster:

    ts("filehandles.used") / ts("filehandles.total") * 100 > 60

  • Alerts don’t fire: When a metric arrives with a delay of more than 1 minute, the use of default() can prevent an associated alert from firing because the value for the last minute evaluates to false.

    Instead of accounting for sparse metrics – success.count is reporting all the time, but failure.count is reporting a value only when there’s a problem – approach the query from a different angle.

    Instead of:

    ts(success.count) * 100 / (default(0, ts(failure.count)) + ts(success.count)) < 95


    ts(failure.count) * 100 / (ts(failure.count) + ts(success.count)) > 5

  • Using highpass() and default(): Using highpass() after default() with a higher highpass value than default reverts the effects of default().

    Instead of

    highpass(..., default(0, ts(...)))


    highpass(..., ts(...))

  • Using msum() and default(): Using msum() after default(0, ) is redundant because msum() always returns a value for all active series where default(0, ) backfills a value.

    Instead of

    msum(..., default(0, ts(...)))


    msum(..., ts(...))

  • Using rawsum() after default(): Using rawsum() after default(0, ) is usually redundant. If you are sure that default() is necessary:

    Instead of

    rawsum(default(0, ts(...)))


    default(0, rawsum(ts(...)))

If you still think that default() is needed, limit the time window to reduce performance problems.